Learn Vietnamese Grammar – Lesson 3

LEARN VIETNAMESE GRAMMAR

The Vietnamese grammar follows a subject + verb + object sentence structure.

E.g: Đây là cái đồng hồ = this is a watch

The article “the” does not exits in Vietnamese, however the word “một” (one) is often used like “a/an”. However, it is not necessary, is most often used in formal situations.

  • Không

The word “không” has a few uses. Aside from being the word for “no” and “ zero”, it is also used as a question particle in yes/no questions, and to make negative phrases.

When used as a question particle, “không” is placed at the end of the sentence to make yes/no questions. It is used with nouns using the following strutures:

Subject + có phải là + object + Không?

E.g: Đây có phải là cái đồng hồ không? = Is this a watch?

And also at the end of tag questions?

…., phải không?

E.g: Đây là cái đồng hồ, phải không? = This is  a watch, isn’t it?

When is used  with verbs and adjectives it follows the form:

Subject + (có) + verb/adjective + Không?

E.g: Bạn (có) khỏe không? = Are you well? (literal)

Bạn (có) hiểu không? = Do you understand?

However, with boths verbs and adjectives, the word “có”  is often omitted.

E.g: Bạn khỏe không? = Are you well? (literal)

Bạn hiểu không? = Do you understand?

“Không” is also used it front of adjectives and verbs to create negative sentences.

  • “Đây” and “cái này”

The words “đây” and “cái này” both mean “this”, however “cái này” is only used with objects.

E.g: Cái này là cái gì? = What is this?

Cái này là cuốn sách = This is a book

However, “đây” can be used for objects, as well as for people and places.

Đây là cái gì? = What is this?

Đây là cuốn sách = This is a book.

Đây là (một) trường học = This is a school

Đây là cô Hương = This is Ms. Hương

  • “Gì” and “cái gì”

The word “gì” and “cái gì” both mean “what”, however “cái gì” is only used with objects.

E.g: Cái này là cái gì? = What is this?

Cái đó là cái gì? = What is that?

“Gì” is used for all other situations

E.g: Bạn tên gì? = What is your name?

Bạn muốn gì? = What do you want?

EXERCISES

Write some sentences as below with the vocabulary in this lesson:

1.

Cái này là cái gì? What is this?
Đây là cây bút mực This is a pen.

2.

Đây có phải là tờ báo không? Is this a newspaper?
Vâng, đó là tờ báo Yes, it is
Không, đó không phải là tờ báo No, that isn’t a newspaper.

3.

Cái đó là cái đồng hồ, phải không? That is a watch, isn’t it?
Vâng, đó là cái đồng hồ Yes, that is a watch (yes, it is)
Không, đó không phải là cái đồng hồ No, that isn’t a watch

4.

Cái này là cuốn sách hay là cây bút chì? Is this a book or is this a pencil?
Đó là cây bút chì That’s a pencil

5.

Anh muốn mua gì? What do you want to buy?
Tôi muốn mua 1 cây bút chì I want to buy a pencil
Bao nhiêu tiền? How much is it?
Hai ngàn 2.000vnd
Cảm ơn Thank you
Không có chi You’re welcome

 

Practice saying the following numbers in Vietnamese

10 4 8 17 20
39 2 0 100 55

Write out the following numbers using the Vietnamese script

Example: 150: Một trăm năm mươi

35: __________________

78: __________________

8: __________________

43: __________________

207: __________________

92: __________________

101: __________________

1000: __________________

1.000.000: __________________

This is the end of Lesson 3 about Vietnamese Grammar. Let’s practice by yourself. For more lessons, please follow this link 🙂

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