Brick by brick, six-year-old Alice is building a magical kingdom. Imagining fairy-tale turrets and fire-breathing dragons, wicked witches, and gallant heroes, she’s creating an enchanting world. Although she isn’t aware of it, this fantasy is helping her take her first steps towards her capacity for creativity and so it will have important repercussions in her adult life.
Minutes later, Alice has abandoned the kingdom in favour of playing school with her younger brother. When she bosses him around as his ‘teacher’, she’s practising how to regulate her emotions through pretence. Later on, when they tire of this and settle down with a board game, she’s learning about the need to follow rules and take turns with a partner.
‘Play in all its rich variety is one of the highest achievements of the human species,’ says Dr. David Whitebread from the Faculty of Education at the University of Cambridge, UK. ‘It underpins how we develop as intellectual, problem-solving adults and is crucial to our success as a highly adaptable species.’
Recognising the importance of play is not new: over two millennia ago, the Greek philosopher Plato extolled its virtues as a means of developing skills for adult life, and ideas about play-based learning have been developing since the 19th century.
But we live in changing times, and Whitebread is mindful of a worldwide decline in play, pointing out that over half the people in the world now live in cities. ‘The opportunities for free play, which I experienced almost every day of my childhood, are becoming increasingly scarce,’ he says. Outdoor play is curtailed by perceptions of risk to do with traffic, as well as parents’ increased wish to protect their children from being the victims of crime, and by the emphasis on ‘earlier is better’ which is leading to greater competition in academic learning and schools.
International bodies like the United Nations and the European Union have begun to develop policies concerned with children’s right to play and to consider implications for leisure facilities and educational programmes. But what they often lack is the evidence to base policies on.
‘The type of play we are interested in is child-initiated, spontaneous and unpredictable – but, as soon as you ask a five-year-old “to play”, then you as the researcher have intervened,’ explains Dr. Sara Baker. ‘And we want to know what the long-term impact of play is. It’s a real challenge.’
Dr Jenny Gibson agrees, pointing out that although some of the steps in the puzzle of how and why play is important have been looked at, there is very little data on the impact it has on the child’s later life.
Now, thanks to the university’s new Centre for Research on Play in Education, Development and Learning (PEDAL), Whitebread, Baker, Gibson and a team of researchers hope to provide evidence on the role played by play in how a child develops.
‘A strong possibility is that play supports the early development of children’s self-control,’ explains Baker. ‘This is our ability to develop awareness of our own thinking processes – it influences how effectively we go about undertaking challenging activities.’
In a study carried out by Baker with toddlers and young preschoolers, she found that children with greater self-control solved problems more quickly when exploring an unfamiliar set-up requiring scientific reasoning. ‘This sort of evidence makes us think that giving children the chance to play will make them more successful problem solvers in the long run.’
If playful experiences do facilitate this aspect of development, say the researchers, it could be extremely significant for educational practices, because the ability to self regulate has been shown to be a key predictor of academic performance.
Gibson adds: ‘Playful behaviour is also an important indicator of healthy social and emotional development. In my previous research, I investigated how observing children at play can give us important clues about their well-being and can even be useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.’
Whitebread’s recent research has involved developing a play-based approach to supporting children’s writing. ‘Many primary school children find writing difficult, but we showed in a previous study that a playful stimulus was far more effective than an instructional one.’ Children wrote longer and better-structured stories when they first played with dolls representing characters in the story. In the latest study, children first created their story with Lego *, with similar results. ‘Many teachers commented that they had always previously had children saying they didn’t know what to write about. With the Lego building, however, not a single child said this through the whole year of the project.’
Whitebread, who directs PEDAL, trained as a primary school teacher in the early 1970s, when, as he describes, ‘the teaching of young children was largely a quiet backwater, untroubled by any serious intellectual debate or controversy.’ Now, the landscape is very different, with hotly debated topics such as school starting age.
‘Somehow the importance of play has been lost in recent decades. It’s regarded as something trivial, or even as something negative that contrasts with “work”. Let’s not lose sight of its benefits, and the fundamental contributions it makes to human achievements in the arts, sciences, and technology. Let’s make sure children have a rich diet of play experiences.’
Brick by brick = Step by step: Từng bước một
Capacity for creativity: Khả năng sáng tạo
Important repercussions: Hậu quả nghiêm trọng
Minutes later: Vài phút sau
Regulate: Điều tiết
Take turns: Luân phiên
Rich variety: Đa dạng, phong phú
Underpins: Nền tảng
Problem-solving adults: Người trưởng thành giải quyết vấn đề
Crucial: Quan trọng
A highly adaptable species: Một giống loài có khả năng thích nghi cao
Over two millennia ago: Hơn 2 thiên niên kỷ trước
Play-based learning: Chơi mà học
In changing times: Thời đại thay đổi.
Mindful: Trách nhiệm
Over half the people in the world: Hơn phân nửa dân số Thế giới
Curtailed by perceptions of risk to do: Bị hạn chế bởi nhận thức về rủi ro phải làm gì đó
Emphasis: Nhấn mạnh
Earlier is better: Càng sớm càng tốt
International bodies: Những cơ quan Quốc tế
Leisure facilities: Thiết bị giải trí
Child-initiated: Trẻ em khởi xướng
Spontaneous: Tự phát
Unpredictable: Không thể dự đoán
Intervene: Can thiệp
On the role played by play: Vai trò khi chơi
A strong possibility: Một khả năng mạnh mẽ
The early development of: Sự phát triển sớm của
Develop awareness of our own thinking processes: Phát triển nhận thức về quá trình suy nghĩ của chúng ta
Influence: Ảnh hưởng
Undertaking challenging activities: Thực hiện các hoạt động đầy thử thách
An unfamiliar set-up requiring scientific reasoning: Một cách thiết lập khác biệt đòi hỏi lý luận khoa học
Make them more successful problem solvers in the long run: Khiến chúng trở thành người giải quyết vấn đề thành công hơn
Facilitate this aspect of development: Tạo điều kiện cho khía cạnh này phát triển
The ability to self regulate: Khả năng tự điều chỉnh
A key predictor of academic performance: Chìa khóa dự đoán kết quả học tập
Playful behaviour: Hành vi vui vẻ
Healthy social and emotional development: Phát triển lành mạnh cảm xúc và xã hội
Important clues: Những manh mối quan trọng
Well-being: Sự an toàn, hạnh phúc
Diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism: Chẩn đoán các rối loạn trong phát triển thần kinh như là bệnh tự kỷ
A playful stimulus: Một kích thích vui vẻ
Far more effective than: Hiệu quả nhiều hơn
Better-structured stories: Những câu truyện có cấu trúc tốt hơn
Largely a quiet backwater: Mặt nước yên tĩnh lớn
Any serious intellectual debate or controversy: Một cuộc tranh luận hay tranh cãi trí tuệ nghiêm trọng
The landscape is very different, with hotly debated topics such as: Bối cảnh rất khác biệt với những chủ đề tranh luận nóng bỏng như là
Somehow the importance of: Dù sao thì tầm quan trọng của…
It’s regarded as: Nó được coi là
Have a rich diet of: Một chế độ phong phú trong việc
Complete the notes below
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer:
Write your answers in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
Uses of children’s play
· building a ‘magical kingdom’ may help develop 1 …….creativity………….
· board games involve 2 …….rules…………. and turn-taking
Recent changes affecting children’s play
· populations of 3 ……..cities………… have grown
· opportunities for free play are limited due to:
– fear of 4 ………traffic………..
– fear of 5 ………crime………..
– increased 6 …….competition…………. in schools
International policies on children’s play:
· it is difficult to find 7 …..evidence………….. to support new policies
· research needs to study the impact of play on the rest of the child’s 8 …….life………….
Do the following statements agree with the information given on the reading passage?
In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
9. Children with good self-control are known to be likely to do well at school later on. (True)
10. The way a child plays may provide information about possible medical problems. (True)
11. Playing with dolls was found to benefit girls’ writing more than boys’ writing. (Not given)
12. Children had problems thinking up ideas when they first created the story with Lego. (False)
13. People nowadays regard children’s play as less significant than they did in the past. (True)